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Unit 1: Database Management System Concepts:  Introduction, Significance of Database, Database System Applications; Data Independence; Data Modeling for a Database; Entities and their Attributes, Entities, Attributes, Relationships and Relationships Types, Advantages and Disadvantages of Database Management System, DBMS Vs RDBMS.


Unit 2: Database System Architecture: Three Level Architecture of DBMS, The External Level or Subschema, The Conceptual Level or Conceptual Schema, The Internal Level or Physical Schema, Mapping; MySQL Architecture; SQL Server 2000 Architecture; Oracle Architecture; Database Management System Facilities, Data Definition Language, Data Manipulation Language; Database Management System Structure, Database Manager, Database Administrator, Data Dictionary; Distributed Processing, Information and Communications Technology System (ICT), Client / Server Architecture


Unit 3: Database Models and Implementation: Data Model and Types of Data Model, Relational Data Model, Hierarchical Model, Network Data Model, Object/Relational Model, Object-Oriented Model; Entity-Relationship Model, Modeling using E-R Diagrams, Notation used in E-R Model, Relationships and Relationship Types; Associative Database Model


Unit 4: File Organization for Conventional DBMS: Storage Devices and its Characteristics, Magnetic Disks, Physical Characteristics of Disks, Performance Measures of Disks, Optimization of Disk-Block Access; File Organization, Fixed-Length Records, Variable-Length Records, Organization of records in files; Sequential file Organization; Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM); Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM)


Unit 5: An Introduction to RDBMS: An informal look at the relational model; Relational Database Management System; RDBMS Properties, The Entity-Relationship Model; Overview of Relational Query Optimization; System Catalog in a Relational DBMS, Information Stored in the System Catalog, How Catalogs are Stored


Unit 6: SQL – 1 : Categories of SQL Commands; Data Definition; Data Manipulation Statements, SELECT - The Basic Form, Subqueries, Functions, GROUP BY Feature, Updating the Database, Data Definition Facilities


Unit 7: SQL – 2: Views; Embedded SQL *, Declaring Variables and Exceptions, Embedding SQL Statements; Transaction Processing, Consistency and Isolation, Atomicity and Durability


Unit 8: Relational Algebra: Basic Operations, Union (U), Difference ( - ), Intersection (Ç), Cartesian Product (x); Additional Relational Algebraic Operations, Projection (p), Selection (s), JOIN ( ), Division (¸)


Unit 9: Relational Calculus: Tuple Relational Calculus, Semantics of TRC Queries, Examples of TRC Queries; Domain Relational Calculus; Relational ALGEBRA vs Relational CALCULUS


Unit 10: Normalization: Functional Dependency; Anomalies in a Database; Properties of Normalized Relations; First Normalization; Second Normal Form Relation; Third Normal Form; Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BNCF); Fourth and Fifth Normal Form


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