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Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer science that concerned with the design of computer systems which exhibit the attributes of Human Intelligence.

Some definitions given by renowned companies are:

  1. Merriam-Webster — “A branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.”
  2. Intel — “A program that can sense, reason, act, and adapt.”
  3. Wikipedia — “Colloquially, the term ‘artificial intelligence’ is applied when a machine mimics ‘cognitive’ functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as ‘learning’ and ‘problem solving’.”

The purpose of AI is to build useful new tools not only for commercial purposes, but also to improve standards of living.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning

History of Artificial Intelligence

AI has experienced several boost cycles where it swayed between exhilaration and regret.

In 1950,  Alan Turing developed a Turing test to examine machines whether they can show  intelligent behavior.
 In 1956, Artificial Intelligence was undertaken as a field at the Dartmouth Conference. 
In 1959, Arthur Samuel promulgate an algorithm for a checkers program using machine learning. In 1969, Marvin Minsky published a book on limits of the Perceptron algorithm which slowed research in neural networks.
In 1980’s expert systems were came into existence. Expert systems were programmed to mimic human experts. 
In late 1990’s, AI solutions had successes in speech recognition, medical diagnosis, robotics, and many other areas. 
In early 2000, Google search engine launched using artificial intelligence technology. 
In 2006, Geoffrey Hinton publishes a paper on unsupervised pre-training that allowed deeper
neural networks to be trained.
In 2010, Algorithms compete on various visual recognition tasks at the first ImageNet competition.

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